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Mahmood Lytkin
Mahmood Lytkin

The Art Of Philosophy: Visual Thinking In Europe From The Late Renaissance To The Early Enlightenmen



Delving into the intersections between artistic images and philosophical knowledge in Europe from the late sixteenth to the early eighteenth centuries, The Art of Philosophy shows that the making and study of visual art functioned as important methods of philosophical thinking and instruction. From frontispieces of books to monumental prints created by philosophers in collaboration with renowned artists, Susanna Berger examines visual representations of philosophy and overturns prevailing assumptions about the limited function of the visual in European intellectual history.




The Art Of Philosophy: Visual Thinking In Europe From The Late Renaissance To The Early Enlightenmen


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Susanna Berger is Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of Southern California. Her research and teaching explore diverse facets of art and visual culture from printed and drawn illustrations of philosophical knowledge to central works in the history of European early modern painting. Her first book, The Art of Philosophy: Visual Thinking in Europe from the Late Renaissance to the Early Enlightenment, appeared with Princeton University Press in March 2017.


Extending Horkheimer and Adorno's argument, intellectual historian Jason Josephson Storm argues that any idea of the Age of Enlightenment as a clearly defined period that is separate from the earlier Renaissance and later Romanticism or Counter-Enlightenment constitutes a myth. Storm points out that there are vastly different and mutually contradictory periodizations of the Enlightenment depending on nation, field of study, and school of thought; that the term and category of "Enlightenment" referring to the Scientific Revolution was actually applied after the fact; that the Enlightenment did not see an increase in disenchantment or the dominance of the mechanistic worldview; and that a blur in the early modern ideas of the humanities and natural sciences makes it hard to circumscribe a Scientific Revolution.[163] Storm defends his categorization of the Enlightenment as "myth" by noting the regulative role ideas of a period of Enlightenment and disenchantment play in modern Western culture, such that belief in magic, spiritualism, and even religion appears somewhat taboo in intellectual strata.[164]


Rather than merely illustrating already existing philosophical concepts, visual images generated new knowledge for both Aristotelian thinkers and anti-Aristotelians, such as Descartes and Hobbes. Printmaking and drawing played a decisive role in discoveries that led to a move away from the authority of Aristotle in the seventeenth century. Berger interprets visual art from printed books, student lecture notebooks, alba amicorum (friendship albums), broadsides, and paintings, and examines the work of such artists as Pietro Testa, Léonard Gaultier, Abraham Bosse, Dürer, and Rembrandt. In particular, she focuses on the rise and decline of the "plural image," a genre that was popular among early modern philosophers. Plural images brought multiple images together on the same page, often in order to visualize systems of logic, metaphysics, natural philosophy, or moral philosophy.\nFeaturing previously unpublished prints and drawings from the early modern period and lavish gatefolds, The Art of Philosophy reveals the essential connections between visual commentary and philosophical thought.","uploaded_on":"2017-02-28 13:30:16","uploaded_on_relative":"6 years ago","uploaded_on_full":"Tuesday, February 28, 2017 at 1:30 PM EST","is_spatial":false,"is_hdr":false,"is_dolby_vision":false,"privacy":"is_public":true,"type":"anybody","description":"Public","duration":"raw":96,"formatted":"01:36","is_liked":false,"is_unavailable":false,"likes_url":"\/206111213\/likes","is_live":false,"unlisted_hash":null},"owner":"id":23884691,"display_name":"Princeton University Press","has_advanced_stats":true,"is_pro_lapsed":false,"is_paid":true,"badge":null,"portrait":"src":"https:\/\/i.vimeocdn.com\/portrait\/25153881_75x75","src_2x":"https:\/\/i.vimeocdn.com\/portrait\/25153881_150x150","is_mod":false,"url":"\/princetonuniversitypress","verified":true,"is_following":false,"is_available_for_hire":null,"ondemand":null,"brand_channel":null,"api_url":"api.vimeo.com","jwt":"eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2NzU5NDUwODAsInVzZXJfaWQiOm51bGwsImFwcF9pZCI6NTg0NzksInNjb3BlcyI6InB1YmxpYyBzdGF0cyIsInRlYW1fdXNlcl9pZCI6bnVsbH0.eFFWjze3YyK4udH6cva7OgA7wGEMNUglF6p-euGXtkY","chat":null,"cur_user":null,"status":"state":"ready","copyright_status":"is_blocked":false,"content_block_status":"is_blocked":false,"message":"Video is not rated. 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Rather than merely illustrating already existing philosophical concepts, visual images generated new knowledge for both Aristotelian thinkers and anti-Aristotelians, such as Descartes and Hobbes. Printmaking and drawing played a decisive role in discoveries that led to a move away from the authority of Aristotle in the seventeenth century. Berger interprets visual art from printed books, student lecture notebooks, alba amicorum (friendship albums), broadsides, and paintings, and examines the work of such artists as Pietro Testa, Léonard Gaultier, Abraham Bosse, Dürer, and Rembrandt. In particular, she focuses on the rise and decline of the "plural image," a genre that was popular among early modern philosophers. Plural images brought multiple images together on the same page, often in order to visualize systems of logic, metaphysics, natural philosophy, or moral philosophy.


Featuring previously unpublished prints and drawings from the early modern period and lavish gatefolds, The Art of Philosophy reveals the essential connections between visual commentary and philosophical thought.


It is essential to answer the question, when did the Enlightenment start to understand the impact of the Enlightenment. There is no definitive start, but historians agree that the Enlightenment began in the late 17th-century and continued throughout the early 19th-century. The start was around the end of the Renaissance, so new ways of thinking and the rebirth of old ideas were not new, but the focus shifted from art and literature to scientific and worldly ideas.


Cimabue (c.1240-1302) Noted for his frescos at Assisi. Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) Scrovegni Arena Chapel frescos. Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1427) Influential Gothic style painter. Jacopo della Quercia (c.1374-1438) Influential sculptor from Siena. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) Sculptor of "Gates of Paradise" Donatello (1386-1466) Best early Renaissance sculptor Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Famous for work on perspective. Tommaso Masaccio (1401-1428) Greatest early Florentine painter. Piero della Francesca (1420-92) Pioneer of linear perspective. Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506) Noted for illusionistic foreshortening techniques. Donato Bramante (1444-1514) Top High Renaissance architect. Alessandro Botticelli (1445-1510) Famous for mythological painting. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Creator of Mona Lisa, Last Supper. Raphael (1483-1520) Greatest High Renaissance painter. Michelangelo (1475-1564) Genius painter & sculptor. Titian (1477-1576) Greatest Venetian colourist. Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) Leader of High Renaissance in Florence. Correggio (1489-1534) Famous for illusionistic quadratura frescoes. Andrea Palladio (1508-80) Dominated Venetian Renaissance architecture, later imitated in Palladianism. Tintoretto (1518-1594) Religious Mannerist painter. Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) Colourist follower of Titian.


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